Evaluation of E: I Ratio and Electrocardiographic Changes during Breath Holding in Overweight Young Males


  • Pramod Kumar Porwal1 , Shashi Pandey2 , Pradeep Kumar3




Overweight, Breath Holding, Electrocardiogram, Parasympathetic


Background: It is well established fact that the obesity is one of the crucial risk factors for many diseases.
The cause of obesity in Indian adolescent and young adults is intake of excessive calories and sedentary life
style. The majority of studies revealed that obesity might be responsible for derangements in the balance
between sympathetic and parasympathetic out flow. QT prolongation has been reported more than 28 percent
of obese persons. Therefore in present study we examined the changes in QTc after stimulation of vagus
nerve through breath holding.
Methods: This study was conducted on 76 volunteers including normal weight male subjects (Control
group) and overweight /obese subjects (study group). . Participants were kept in lying position and ECG
was recorded in three stages: (1) Rest state, (2) Breath - Holding state, (3) After breath holding state. E: I
ratio was calculated as per standard protocol.
Results: During breath holding, the heart rate decreases significantly (P < 0.01) in both the groups, the
alteration in QRS complex and QTc was also observed but difference in decrease in these parameters was
not statistically significant between two groups. E: I ratio was with in normal limits.
Conclusion: Data from our study showed no significant change in parasympathetic arm of autonomic
nervous system. Further studies with large sample size are needed to support this elucidation