International Journal of Contemporary Medicine <p><strong>International Journal of Contemporary Medicine</strong> is a double blind peer reviewed international journal which has commenced its publication from January 2013. The journal is half yearly in frequency. The journal covers all aspects of l medical specialties including intensive care, hospital practice, ICU etc . The journal has been assigned ISSN 2320-9623 (Print Version) and ISSN 2321-1032(Online Version). The journal is indexed in many international data bases like Google scholar , EBSCO , Pro Quest etc.</p> <p>This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> <p> </p> Institute of Medico-legal Publications en-US International Journal of Contemporary Medicine 2320-9623 A Comparative Study of Carotid Artery Intima Media Thickness in Hypertensive Smokers and Non-Hypertensive Smokers <p>Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death globally. In 2017-18, Non-communicable<br>diseases led to 38 million (68%) deaths out of a total of 56 million deaths worldwide. India is currently in<br>the midst of this global Cardiovascular Disease epidemic.<br>Method: Case-control study<br>Aim of the Study: To compare carotid artery intima-media thickness(cIMT) in Hypertensive smokers and<br>smokers without Hypertension.<br>Result: Mean value of cIMT of the Case group (0.970mm) was significantly higher than that of the Control<br>group (0.735mm). Mean cIMT was highest in the study group i.e 1.114 mm in the population of age above<br>70 years, similarly Mean cIMT was highest in the control group i.e. 0.821mm in the population of age above<br>60 years.<br>Conclusion: The present study and its observations makes it imminent that Hypertension affects every cIMT<br>measurement of the study subjects. cIMT measurement has a positive correlation with the increasing age.</p> Aditya Jain1 , Ajay Pal Singh2 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-10-05 2020-10-05 8 2 1 7 10.37506/ijocm.v8i2.1662 Role of Ultrasonography in Thyroid Nodules with Pathological Correlation <p>Introduction: Thyroid nodule imaging had been a challenging task. Ultrasound has been the modality of<br>choice for detection &amp; evaluation of these lesions. This study was done to identify the accuracy of various<br>imaging features in thyroid nodules that are associated with benignity and malignancy and the overall<br>accuracy of ultrasound in determining malignant nodules.<br>Objective: Ultrasonographic evaluation of thyroid to characterize the thyroid disease and nodules(benign vs<br>malignant) and their morphologic evaluation .<br>Materials and Method: A total of Seventy patients (70) of both sexes and different age group, meeting<br>the inclusion criterion, were the part of present prospective study. The cases referred to the Department<br>of Radio-diagnosis and imaging from OPD/IPD of Saraswathi Institute of Medical sciences, Hapur from<br>October’2017 to July’2019. An informed consent was taken from all the patients subjected for evaluation.<br>Results: The collective data was analysed for Ultrasound findings of thyroid nodule which presented<br>clinically as solitary or multiple thyroid nodules. The total number of cases analysed was 70 out of which<br>48 were found to have solitary/multinodular lesions clincally. On ultrasound evaluation out of 48 patients<br>38 had solitary/multinodular lesions.<br>Conclusion: High resolution sonography is recommended as the primary imaging modality in evaluation of<br>thyroid diseases. It has a high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases.</p> Pranay Kumar1 , Subhash C. Sylonia2 , Abhay Kumar Singh3 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Contemporary Medicine 2020-10-05 2020-10-05 8 2 25 28 10.37506/ijocm.v8i2.1673 Comparison of the Effects of Different Physical Exercise Programs on the Functional Capacity of Patients with Heart Failure <p>This study aims to compare the effects of Tai-Chi, treadmill, and stationary bicycle exercises on the capacity<br>of heart function in patients with heart failure. The study was conducted at the outpatient clinic specific for<br>Integrated Heart Service for 12 weeks. The research subjects included 40 respondents. Group 1 was given<br>Tai-Chi exercise, group 2 was given treadmill exercise, group 3 was given stationary bicycle exercise, and<br>group 4 was set as the control group. The finding show that all treatment groups had the same effect on the<br>capacity of heart function (p&lt;0.05). However, there was one group receiving the most influential effect<br>compared to the other treatment groups, namely the Tai-Chi exercise group, with a value of p = 0.000. Based<br>on the results of data analysis, it can be concluded that Tai-Chi exercise has a more significant effect on heart<br>function capacity than treadmills and stationary bicycle exercises.</p> Agung Wahyu Permadi1 , Soetanto Hartono2 , Endang Sri Wahjuni Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Contemporary Medicine 2020-10-05 2020-10-05 8 2 8 13 10.37506/ijocm.v8i2.1666 Preanalytical Errors in Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory <p>Introduction: In an era of evidence-based medicine, accuracy of test reports is mandatory. Automation of<br>laboratories has drastically reduced the errors in the analytical phase of testing but errors in the preanalytical<br>and postanalytical phases are largely responsible for the decrease in quality of clinical laboratory results.<br>Objective of this study is to evaluate the leading causes of preanalytical errors in a clinical chemistry<br>laboratory.<br>Method: The study was carried out in clinical biochemistry laboratory of Mahavir Cancer Sansthan, Patna.<br>A prospective analysis of 3 months duration 1st October to 31st December has been carried out to evaluate<br>errors in the preanalytical phase. samples from ward as well as out-patient samples were collected in the<br>laboratory. Rejections of the samples as well as their causes for rejection were registered.<br>Results: 14,832 samples received during the data collection period. Out of these 639 samples were found<br>unsuitable for further processing. This accounted for 4.18% of all samples collected. Reasons for the rejection<br>were mentioned: hemolysis - 2.1%; specimens with inappropriate or no patient i.d - 0.81%; samples in<br>inappropriate vacutainers -0.62%, inappropriate sample time - 0.31 % (for fasting and postprandial plasma<br>glucose, and lipid profile) and insufficient sample quantity - 0.33%.<br>Conclusion: The overall percentage of rejection found is 4.18%. Most Quality control programs at laboratory<br>focuses only on the analytical phase, and the pre-analytical errors are neglected. Therefore, monitoring of<br>pre and postanalytical phases for finding errors and corrective actions for the same are needed to achieve<br>better test reporting.</p> Santosh Kumar1 , Archana Bharti2 , Sude Kumar Singh3 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Contemporary Medicine 2020-10-05 2020-10-05 8 2 29 33 10.37506/ijocm.v8i2.1674 Study of Efficacy and Safety of Platelet Rich Plasma Therapy Combined Withmicroneedling on Acne Scars <p>Background: - Acne Vulgaris is an extremely common disorder.More than ninety percent of the patients<br>with acne vulgaris suffer scarring leading topsychological impact and cosmetic disfigurement after healing<br>of their acne lesions.Atrophic acne scars are more common and difficult to treat .These can be sub-classified<br>into icepick, rolling and box car depending on theirwidth, depth and shape. Microneedling device performs<br>acne scar remodelling viacollagen induction therapy. Autologous platelet-rich plasma therapy combined<br>withmicroneedling is a new adjuvant treatment modality of the wound healing cascadebased on the body<br>self-healing mechanisms.<br>Objective-: Assesment of safety and efficacy ofautologus platelet rich plasma therapy combined with<br>microneedling on atrophic acne scars.<br>Methods: 46 patients with acne scars of 18-25 years age group underwentthree consecutive sittings of<br>microneedling combined with PRP procedure, conducted at an interval of 4 weeks followed by a last<br>assessment done after 3 months of final sitting.<br>The lesions were classified on Goodman’s qualitative scale and serial photography.<br>Results: Two independent dermatologists performed evaluation and follow up at subsequent visits. Majority<br>(34) patients with good response (improvement by Grade 1) constituting to (73.91%) in total. There was an<br>overall improvement in 86.9% of cases without any serious complications.<br>Conclusion: - Autologus PRP combined with Microneedling is an effective modality in enhancing clinical<br>outcomes and overall cosmetic appearence of acne scars.</p> Harmeet Kaur1 , Sachin Agarwal2 , Amarjeet Singh3 , Akhil Kumar Singh 4 , Sagar5 , Parth6 Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Contemporary Medicine 2020-10-05 2020-10-05 8 2 14 19 10.37506/ijocm.v8i2.1669 Evaluation of E: I Ratio and Electrocardiographic Changes during Breath Holding in Overweight Young Males <p>Background: It is well established fact that the obesity is one of the crucial risk factors for many diseases.<br>The cause of obesity in Indian adolescent and young adults is intake of excessive calories and sedentary life<br>style. The majority of studies revealed that obesity might be responsible for derangements in the balance<br>between sympathetic and parasympathetic out flow. QT prolongation has been reported more than 28 percent<br>of obese persons. Therefore in present study we examined the changes in QTc after stimulation of vagus<br>nerve through breath holding.<br>Methods: This study was conducted on 76 volunteers including normal weight male subjects (Control<br>group) and overweight /obese subjects (study group). . Participants were kept in lying position and ECG<br>was recorded in three stages: (1) Rest state, (2) Breath - Holding state, (3) After breath holding state. E: I<br>ratio was calculated as per standard protocol.<br>Results: During breath holding, the heart rate decreases significantly (P &lt; 0.01) in both the groups, the<br>alteration in QRS complex and QTc was also observed but difference in decrease in these parameters was<br>not statistically significant between two groups. E: I ratio was with in normal limits.<br>Conclusion: Data from our study showed no significant change in parasympathetic arm of autonomic<br>nervous system. Further studies with large sample size are needed to support this elucidation</p> Pramod Kumar Porwal1 , Shashi Pandey2 , Pradeep Kumar3 Copyright (c) 2020 2020-10-05 2020-10-05 8 2 14 19 10.37506/ijocm.v8i2.1678