Cardiovascular Autonomic Functions and Its Association with Oxidative Stress Marker in Heavy Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco Users of Low Socioeconomic Status
Keywords:Cardiovascular autonomic functions, smokeless tobacco, malondialdehyde
Background: Tobacco usage is a major preventable cause for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Tobacco is used in both smoking and smokeless forms. Alteration in cardiac autonomic function is a
major predisposing factor for cardiovascular risk. There are only limited studies available which assessed
autonomic functional status in smokeless tobacco users. This study was aimed to assess and compare the
cardiac autonomic activity and oxidative stress in smoking and smokeless tobacco users with controls.
Methods: Sixty seven apparently healthy volunteers from the construction workers of low socioeconomic
status were recruited. Those who are having habit of using tobacco in any form (n=42) were categorized
into smoking tobacco group (n = 22) based on the smoking index and fagerstrom score for smokeless
tobacco group (n = 20). Those who never used tobacco in any form were included as control group (n= 25).
Cardiovascular autonomic function tests were performed and serum malondialdehyde was measured from
venous blood sample.
Conclusion: In this study we found that there is definite alteration in cardiac autonomic function which is
in correlation with the level of oxidative stress in heavy tobacco users. This alteration is seen more in heavy
smokeless tobacco users in compare with smoking tobacco users.
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