The Effect of Astaxanthin Administration on Plasma Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-? and Palatine Tonsil Swab in Chronic Tonsillitis Patients
Keywords:Chronic tonsillitis, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), TNF-α levels, palatine tonsil swab, astaxanthin.
Background: Chronic tonsillitis is chronic inflammation of the palatine tonsils which can be caused by the
presence of free radicals that stimulate the formation of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Tumor Necrosis
Factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (Il-6). Astaxanthin as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory is thought to
reduce levels of proinflammatory cytokines.
Aim: To determine plasma levels of TNF-? and palatine tonsill smears in patients with chronic tonsillitis
before and after administration of astaxanthin.
Method: Research with clinical trial design. Thirty-one subjects who met the inclusion and exclusion
criteria in the Ear, Nose, Throat, Head and Neck Surgery clinic in Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital and
Network Hospital were given astaxanthin 4 mg/day for 14 days. Plasma TNF-? levels and palatine tonsile
smears were examined before and after administration of astaxanthin. Data were analyzed using SPSS 25th
version. The statistical tests used Paired-t test and Independent-t test.
Results: Thirty-one subjects can be followed until the end of the study. Astaxanthin 4 mg per day for 14 days
can reduce plasma TNF-? levels and palatine tonsil swab of patients with chronic tonsillitis (p <0.05), and
there is no significant difference in TNF-? levels between plasma and palatine tonsil swab both before and
after administration astaxanthin (p> 0.05).
Conclusion: Astaxanthin can reduce plasma TNF-? levels and palatine tonsil swab in chronic tonsillitis