The Effect of Plumbum, Zinc and Zinc Ratio on Plumbum in Children’s Temperament.

  • Yunias Setiawati1, Joni Wahyuhadi2, H.J. Mukono3, Endang Warsiki1, Izzatul Fitriyah1, Archie A. Dwiyatna4, Andronikus Dharmawan4
Keywords: Child temperament, plumbum, zinc, zinc/plumbum ratio.

Abstract

Introduction: Plumbum is a heavy metal that is neurotoxic in children. Plumbum exposure in slum and
densely populated environments adversely affects physical growth, nervous system development, memory
disorders and learning disorders, cognitive deficits, psychological disorders and negative temperament of
children that persist until adulthood. Zinc is an important trace element in the body. Increased free radical
production and oxidative stress can interfere with homeostasis trace elements. Trace element zinc plays an
important role in the mechanism of oxidants and antioxidants in microorganisms.
Method: This study is an analytical study with a cross-sectional design with sampling using the random
sampling method in grade 3 to 6 grade BK Surabaya elementary school. Measuring plumbum and zinc levels
using hair media was measured by the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) and temperament
measurements using the Indonesia’s Children’s Temperament Questionnaire.
Results and Discussions: Disorders of elemental levels and elemental imbalances will result in oxidative
cellular component damage associated with the child’s negative temperament which adversely affects
communication with parents, siblings with peers and poor academic performance. This disorder can be
sustained in adolescence with clinical manifestations of aggressiveness, behavioral disorders and substance
abuse and in adulthood the negative impact of difficulty finding work and poor communication in the family.
Conclusions: Pb, Zinc, the ratio of zinc to Plumbum is significant to the child’s temperament.

Author Biography

Yunias Setiawati1, Joni Wahyuhadi2, H.J. Mukono3, Endang Warsiki1, Izzatul Fitriyah1, Archie A. Dwiyatna4, Andronikus Dharmawan4

1Associate Professor Department of Psychiatry, Lecturer Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, 2Associate
Professor, Department of Neurosurgery, Lecturer Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, 3Professor Faculty
of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, 4Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga,
Surabaya, Indonesia

Published
2020-05-22
How to Cite
Yunias Setiawati1, Joni Wahyuhadi2, H.J. Mukono3, Endang Warsiki1, Izzatul Fitriyah1, Archie A. Dwiyatna4, Andronikus Dharmawan4. (2020). The Effect of Plumbum, Zinc and Zinc Ratio on Plumbum in Children’s Temperament. Medico Legal Update, 20(2), 801-806. Retrieved from http://ijop.net/index.php/mlu/article/view/1214