Punjabi Adaptation of WHO’s Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in Gurumukhi Script: A Validity and Reliability Study
Keywords:Punjabi, GPAQ, validity, reliability, Physical activity, questionnaire, WHO
Background: WHO’s Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) has not yet been adapted in the
Punjabi language. This study was aimed to adapt the GPAQ into the Punjabi language in Gurumukhi script
and to make it useful for physical activity surveillance on Punjabi population.
Methods: We translated the GPAQ-English into Punjabi language (Gurumukhi script) using the forward
backward translation technique. A total of 81 adult participants including staff and students having good
command over Punjabi and English languages were conveniently recruited from Guru Nanak Dev University,
Amritsar, Punjab, India. The validity of the adapted version was tested against the original English version
of GPAQ by applying Spearman’s rho. Test-retest reliability was tested by employing ICC coefficients.
Results: GPAQ-P demonstrated good validity for total PA (rs = 0.877), work domain (rs = 0.815), transport
domain (rs = 0.876), and moderate intensity PA (rs= 0.860); moderate validity for recreation domain (rs =
0.643) and sitting time (rs = 0.629); and low for vigorous intensity PA (rs = 0.466). Moderate to excellent
reliability was detected between two administration of GPAQ-P, excellent intraclass coefficients for total
PA (ICC = 0.918), work domain (ICC = 0.943), transport domain (ICC = 0.968), recreation domain (ICC =
0.952), and moderate intensity (ICC = 0.956); good ICC for vigorous intensity (ICC = 0.845) and moderate
ICC for sitting time (ICC = 0.704).
Conclusions: Punjabi adaptation of GPAQ in Gurumukhi script has good validity and reliability and it can
be used for physical activity surveillance in Punjabi knowing population.