Tobacco Smoke and Pregnancy Outcome: Literature Review
Keywords:Pregnancy Outcome, tobacco smoke, ETS, LBW, preterm birth.
Introduction. Pregnant women have a risk for tobacco smoke both actively and passively. Pregnant women
are usually exposed to enviromental tobacco smoke (ETS) in various places with different duration of time.
Cigarette smoke has a severe effect not only on pregnant women but also on the fetus.Methods This is a
literature review. Various references were collected from online database including reports, journals, mostly
in the last 10 years. The journals were mostly from the scholarly journals.
Results. Tobacco smoke can effect the immunity, hormonal and metabolic system of the pregnant woman,
therefore disturbing the growth of the fetus. Tobacco smoke also known to increase the risk of premature
birth and reduce gestational age. Tobacco smoke cause several problems in newborn such as respiration
distress, low birth weight (LBW), neural disorder, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and congenital
Conclusion. The effect of tobacco smoke, actively of passively, have worse outcome for the pregnant
women and their babies.