Risk of Violence among Nurses in Emergency Departments at Baghdad City Hospitals: The Mediating Role of the Work Environment
Keywords:Workplace Violence, Work Environment, Emergency Department, Turnover Intention
Background: Workplace violence is a problem of international healthcare among the workers in all
departments of the healthcare systems, but more severe at the emergency departments.Nurses in the
emergency departments are working on the front lines of violence. This study aims to examine risk of
violence among nurses in the emergency departments and to find out the association between nurses’ age,
years of working in nursing, years of working in emergency departments, work hours, violent events by
patients, violent events by coworkers, likelihood of exposure to violence in the future, work environment,
intention to leave the job, and risk of violence.
Method: A descriptive predictive study design has been carried out.A non-probability (convenience) sample
of (380) nurses from the emergency departments of (12) hospitals in Baghdad city center were selected to
participate in the study.
Data were collected through a self-report instrument that includesnurses socio-demographic data, the
employment data, general information about the violent events, Intention to Leave the Job Scale, Risk
of Violence Scale, Violent Events by Patient Scale, Violent Events by co-workers Scale, Likelihood of
Exposure to Violence in the Future Scale and the Nursing Work Environment Scale. The data were analyzed
using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 26.
The study results revealed thata half of the nurses described the risk of violence they can expose to in the
workplace as average. There is a statistically significant inverse correlation between nurses’ age, years of
experience in nursing, years of experience in EDs and their exposure to violent event by the coworkers, and
risk of violence. The researcher concluded that the younger the nurses, the less the experience they have in
nursing, the less the experience they have in the EDs, the greater the exposure to violence by coworkers, and
risk of violence.
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