International Journal of Contemporary Medicine <p><strong>International Journal of Contemporary Medicine</strong> is a double blind peer reviewed international journal which has commenced its publication from January 2013. The journal is half yearly in frequency. The journal covers all aspects of l medical specialties including intensive care, hospital practice, ICU etc . The journal has been assigned ISSN 2320-9623 (Print Version) and ISSN 2321-1032(Online Version). The journal is indexed in many international data bases like Google scholar , EBSCO , Pro Quest etc.</p> <p>This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> <p> </p> en-US (Prof. Daya Chand) (Prof. Daya Chand) Tue, 12 Jul 2022 10:08:42 +0000 OJS 60 Vascular Complications in Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus <p>Background and Objectives:<br>India is claimed to be the diabetes capital of the world. Many studies had proven that persistent hyperglycemia<br>and associated metabolic syndrome features like hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity contribute to the<br>development of vascular complications.<br>The present study aims to study the prevalence and clinical profile of microvascular and macrovascular<br>complications in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.<br>Methods: The study is a clinical, prospective and observational study of 100 newly detected type 2 diabetics<br>attending medicine department outpatient/ inpatient, SGRRIMHS hospital, dehradun, form the subject for the<br>study August 2018 to July 2020 (24 months) who matched the inclusion criteria.<br>Results: In this, 62 were males and 38 were females and the mean age was 54.05±13.24 years. 44% were detected<br>when they presented with multiple complications due to diabetes. Common complications which they presented<br>were coronary artery disease (15%), infection (12%), stroke (6%), ulcers (4%), neuropathy (4%) and diabetic<br>ketoacidosis (1%). The prevalence of macrovascular complications CAD, CVD and PAD was 26.0%, 8.0% and<br>11.0% respectively and microvascular complications retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy was 20.0%, 34.0%<br>and 16.0% respectively.High incidence of complications especially microvascular and CAD occur with HbA1c of<br>range &gt;6.5. The correlation coefficient of FBS and PPBS in relation to HbA1c was 0.56 and 0.57 respectively.<br>Conclusion: Smoking, increased BMI and waist circumference is associated with increased prevalence of diabetes.<br>There is high prevalence of coronary artery disease, retinopathy and nephropathy at diagnosis. HbA1c levels<br>predict the prevalence of complications.</p> Aishwarya, Aditya Agarwal Copyright (c) 2022 Aishwarya, Aditya Agarwal Tue, 12 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The role of Paraoxonase 1 in Alopecia Areata, a Marker and a Severity Index <p>Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is an immune-mediated form of hair loss that affects all ages and both sexes.<br>Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an esterase enzyme that has lipophilic antioxidant power; it is one of the endogenous<br>free-radical-scavenging systems in the human body. This work was to detect serum PON1 level in patients with<br>alopecia areata.<br>Methods: 60 subjects, 30 AA patients and 30 controls. Full history, general and local clinical examination, clinical<br>assessment of the degree of AA and collection of blood for investigations and paraoxonase1 measurement were<br>to participants.<br>Results: The study revealed significant decrease in serum PON1 level in AA patients (54.083 ± 25.464 μg/L) in<br>comparison to controls (69.479 ± 17.012 μg/L). This decrease was more in male than female.<br>Conclusions: Serum PON1 levels are lower in AA patients. An association between oxidative stress and<br>pathogenesis of this auto immune disease is identified. Attenuation of oxidative stress might be a relevant<br>therapeutic approach and it would be useful to recommend additional drugs with antioxidant effect for treatment.</p> Hanem Elwi Omar, Nglaa Abd Allah, Sabah Ebrahim Abd Elrahim, Moshira Mohammed Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Hanem Elwi Omar, Nglaa Abd Allah, Sabah Ebrahim Abd Elrahim, Moshira Mohammed Ali Tue, 12 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Determinants of Severity of Covid 19 Positive Cases in ICU: A Hospital Based Study <p>Introduction: A mutated variant of COVID 19, B. 1.617.2 was first identified in India, also known as the delta<br>variant. This delta variant was largely responsible for the second wave of pandemic in India. The second wave was<br>epidemiologically different from first wave with very high death rates. This study was done during the second<br>wave to estimate the determinants of severity of COVID 19 cases admitted in ICU. The Findings of the study may<br>support in prevention and management of severe cases of COVID 19.<br>Methodology: This was a hospital-based cros- sectional study conducted from April to June 2021, among 100<br>COVID-19 positive patients admitted in ICU of a tertiary care center, Level-3(L3) facility of COVID-19 in North<br>India. A telephonic conversation was done with patients/attendants for data collection after explaining to them<br>the purpose. Those who gave consent were interviewed. A pre-designed, pre-validated, and semi-structured<br>questionnaire was used for data collection. Data analysis was done using R software and Chi square (χ2) test was<br>used as test of association.<br>Results: Out of 100 patients admitted in ICU, 41% patients were under the age of 45 years mostly from urban set<br>up. Of all 64% had no co-morbidities, 83% had no addiction, 66% were not on any medication. Majority of them<br>were either incompletely vaccinated or not vaccinated for Covid-19. 54% of ICU cases under study died. There<br>was no significant statistical association between mortality and age, gender, occupation, comorbidities, addiction,<br>medication, blood group, and residence. Lesser mortality of vegetarian patients was the only variable found to be<br>statistically significant (χ2 = 0.037 and p&lt; 0.05).<br>Conclusion: Delta variant responsible for the second wave of COVID 19 pandemic in India had no favorites;<br>it caused severe infection and death despite the young age and good health, but it was found in our study that<br>vegetarians had higher chances of survival than non vegetarians. Hence everyone should be vaccinated and must<br>follow the COVID appropriate behavior.</p> Prateek Kishor, Saurabh Sharma, Alka Singh, Sartaj Ahmad, Pawan Parashar, Rahul Bansal, Nitesh Kumar Copyright (c) 2022 Prateek Kishor, Saurabh Sharma, Alka Singh, Sartaj Ahmad, Pawan Parashar, Rahul Bansal, Nitesh Kumar Tue, 12 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Depression among type 2 Diabetic Patients attending at Primary Health Care Centres Buraidah, Qassim Province, Saudi Arabia <p>Background: Chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes can play a major role in mental health ant its spectrum.<br>Recent studies have been shown that the diabetes can increase the risk of depression which could lead to poor selfcare<br>and adverse outcomes among the patients.<br>Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted among the patients attending primary health care centres<br>and simple random technique was applied among the 250 participants for the sample recruitment through self<br>administered questionnaire. Results: In the present study, about 43.2% were having depression based on self<br>reported patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) and majority people had mild depression (29.2%). Depression<br>among the type 2 diabetes was significantly associated with female gender, primary education, unemployed and<br>widow (P&lt;0.05). Logistic regression analysis was done, diabetic neuropathy and family history of depression<br>was significantly associated with depression among type 2 diabetes patients.(P-0.001, P-0.004 consecutively).<br>Conclusions: Based on the study results, there was increase prevalence of depression was noticed. This could<br>be due to PHQ-9 tool, also self administered questionnaire and self reported participants. Health promotional<br>measures to be strengthened.</p> Sohail Ali Alqarawi, Chandra Sekhar Kalevaru Copyright (c) 2022 Sohail Ali Alqarawi, Chandra Sekhar Kalevaru Tue, 12 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000