Mechanism of Biological Aging-A Review
Keywords:Hormesis, Senescence, Epigenetic, Endocrine dysfunction, IGF1 regulation.
Aging is a universal, inherent, natural phenomenon that occurs in all organism. Aging involves morphological
and functional changes in cellular and extracellular components leading to progressive decline in most
biological functions. It causes reduction in strength, basal metabolism, sexual activity and the body’s
Aging is the progressive decline in the maintenance of homeostasis, which leads to decreased response of
the body against internal and external stress. It involves imbalance between free radicals and the antioxidant
mechanism lead to damaged cells, tissues, and organs resulting in age related changes.
With age there is modifications in energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity, neuroendocrine function and
induction of hormesis response. Telomere shortening, mitochondrial dysfunction, increase of oxidative
stress, alteration of insulin-like growth factor and growth hormone signaling are considered to be important
contributors of aging process.
Recently many genes and changes in gene expression have been found associated with aging which affects
many biological processes and are associated with senescence and oxidative stress.
This review focuses on the underlying mechanism of biological aging. With an increase in the number of
elderly population and the patients of age-related diseases, it is becoming increasingly important to consider
these in the field of research. We have attempted to discuss the different aging mechanism along with the
newer concepts, which can give a direction for the future research studies.
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