Role of Intestinal Microbiota and its Virulence Factors in Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Keywords:Inflammatory bowel disease; Ulcerative colitis; Crohn’s disease; Microbiota; Virulence factors, Dysbiosis.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing unexplained etiological condition and microbiota
have been suggested to influence its etiology and pathogenesis. Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease
(CD) are the two main categories of this disease. The present study examined the fifty fecal samples obtained
from IBD patients and control. The bacterial isolates were identified by culture, microscope examination,
biochemical test, and Vitek 2 compact system.Results showed that IBD patients havedifferent percentages of
Proteobacteria (54.5%), Actinobacteria (1.6%), and Firmicutes (43.8%) when identified. They encompassed
17 genera that involve 121 bacterial isolates. The corresponding percentages in control were 49%, 0%
and 51%, respectively, with four genera and 68 bacterial isolates. The bacterial isolates of IBD patients
and control are assessed for some virulence factors, which included biofilm formation and production of
phospholipase and hemolysin, as well as antibiotic susceptibility. In IBD patients, evaluation of biofilm
formation revealed that 20.6% of isolates were high-producing, 69.4% was moderate producing and10%
non-biofilm producing. The corresponding percentages in control were 1%, 62% and 37%, respectively.
The bacterial isolates showed different abilities in producing phospholipase. In samples of patients, 20.5%
of isolates showed large activity, 44% moderate activity and 35.5% negative activity. For control samples,
most of the isolates were non-producer of phospholipase (66%), while large and moderate enzyme activity
accounted for 4.5% and 29.5%, respectively. The hemolysin enzyme activity was determined as 35% of
isolates with high activity, 40% with moderate activity and 25% without activity. These percentages in
control isolates were 25%, 35% and 40%, respectively. Imipenem was the most effective antibiotic against
gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria of the patient isolates with the resistance of 27% and 24%
respectively, while the less effective antibiotics was cefixime with resistance of 95% and 88%, respectively.
In the control isolates, the imipenem was also the most effective against bacteria with a resistance of 15%.
The less effective antibiotics for gram-positive isolates was erythromycin with resistance of 43%and for
gram-negative isolates, it was tetracycline was (45%).
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