High Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio, C-Reactive Protein, Procalcitonin and D-dimer as Risk Factors for Severe COVID-19

Authors

  • I Gede Praya Bayu Pambudi
  • I Ketut Suryana
  • Ida Bagus Ngurah Rai
  • Ida Ayu Jasminarti Dwi Kusumawardani
  • Ni Wayan Candrawati
  • I Gede Ketut Sajinadiyasa
  • Ni Luh Putu Eka Arisanti

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.37506/mlu.v22i1.3178

Keywords:

Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio, C-Reactive Protein, D-dimer, Procalcitonin, the severity of COVID-19

Abstract

Background: COVID-19 is caused by the SARS-CoV2 virus which is a new type of virus that causes
global morbidity and mortality. Several studies are needed to determine biomarkers to identify the
severity of COVID-19. Objective: to analyze the correlation between Neutrophil to lymphocyte rate
(NLR), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), D-dimer, dan Procalcitonin (PCT) on the severity of COVID-19.
Method: A retrospective case-control study was done in our institution using data from June 2020 to
March 2021. Data collected were serum NLR, CRP, d-dimer and PCT. Data were analysed using SPSS.
Participants were divided into 2 groups, severe COVID-19 as case and mild to moderate as control
group. The data collection was carried out in June 2020 – March 2021, included NLR, CRP, D-dimer,
and PCT in patient serum. Data analysis using Chi-Square test and logistic regression with p < 0.05.
Result: The NLR value of participants in case group is 11.4 ± 9.7 and in control group is 8.2 ± 8.5
(95% CI 1.081 – 4.641; p = 0.023). The PCT value of participants in case group was 10.3 ± 75.4 and
in control group was 6.9 ± 41.4 (95% CI 1.495 – 6.908; p < 0.001). CRP values in case group (123.7
± 108.9) were higher than control group (61.3 ± 60.8; 95% CI 1.181 – 5.063; p < 0.001). Meanwhile,
the value of D-dimer participants in case group was 3.5 ± 3.7 and control group was 2.7 ± 4.6 (95% CI
0.604 – 2.958; p = 0.473). Conclusion: increased values of NLR, CRP, and D-dimer are risk factors
for severe COVID-19.

Author Biographies

I Gede Praya Bayu Pambudi

Resident, Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Udayana, Denpasar, Indonesia

I Ketut Suryana

Associate Professor, Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Udayana, Denpasar, Indonesia

Ida Bagus Ngurah Rai

Professor, Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Udayana, Denpasar, Indonesia

Ida Ayu Jasminarti Dwi Kusumawardani

Assistance Professor, Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory
Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Udayana, Denpasar, Indonesia

Ni Wayan Candrawati

Assistance Professor, Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Udayana, Denpasar, Indonesia

I Gede Ketut Sajinadiyasa

Assistance Professor, Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory
Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Udayana, Denpasar, Indonesia

Ni Luh Putu Eka Arisanti

Assistance Professor, Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory
Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Udayana, Denpasar, Indonesia

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Published

2021-11-08

How to Cite

I Gede Praya Bayu Pambudi, I Ketut Suryana, Ida Bagus Ngurah Rai, Ida Ayu Jasminarti Dwi Kusumawardani, Ni Wayan Candrawati, I Gede Ketut Sajinadiyasa, & Ni Luh Putu Eka Arisanti. (2021). High Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio, C-Reactive Protein, Procalcitonin and D-dimer as Risk Factors for Severe COVID-19. Medico Legal Update, 22(1), 41–46. https://doi.org/10.37506/mlu.v22i1.3178

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