High Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio, C-Reactive Protein, Procalcitonin and D-dimer as Risk Factors for Severe COVID-19
Keywords:Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio, C-Reactive Protein, D-dimer, Procalcitonin, the severity of COVID-19
Background: COVID-19 is caused by the SARS-CoV2 virus which is a new type of virus that causes
global morbidity and mortality. Several studies are needed to determine biomarkers to identify the
severity of COVID-19. Objective: to analyze the correlation between Neutrophil to lymphocyte rate
(NLR), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), D-dimer, dan Procalcitonin (PCT) on the severity of COVID-19.
Method: A retrospective case-control study was done in our institution using data from June 2020 to
March 2021. Data collected were serum NLR, CRP, d-dimer and PCT. Data were analysed using SPSS.
Participants were divided into 2 groups, severe COVID-19 as case and mild to moderate as control
group. The data collection was carried out in June 2020 – March 2021, included NLR, CRP, D-dimer,
and PCT in patient serum. Data analysis using Chi-Square test and logistic regression with p < 0.05.
Result: The NLR value of participants in case group is 11.4 ± 9.7 and in control group is 8.2 ± 8.5
(95% CI 1.081 – 4.641; p = 0.023). The PCT value of participants in case group was 10.3 ± 75.4 and
in control group was 6.9 ± 41.4 (95% CI 1.495 – 6.908; p < 0.001). CRP values in case group (123.7
± 108.9) were higher than control group (61.3 ± 60.8; 95% CI 1.181 – 5.063; p < 0.001). Meanwhile,
the value of D-dimer participants in case group was 3.5 ± 3.7 and control group was 2.7 ± 4.6 (95% CI
0.604 – 2.958; p = 0.473). Conclusion: increased values of NLR, CRP, and D-dimer are risk factors
for severe COVID-19.
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