Determinants of Severity of Covid 19 Positive Cases in ICU: A Hospital Based Study
Keywords:COVID-19; Pandemic; Severity; Delta variant; ICU, Mortality
Introduction: A mutated variant of COVID 19, B. 1.617.2 was first identified in India, also known as the delta
variant. This delta variant was largely responsible for the second wave of pandemic in India. The second wave was
epidemiologically different from first wave with very high death rates. This study was done during the second
wave to estimate the determinants of severity of COVID 19 cases admitted in ICU. The Findings of the study may
support in prevention and management of severe cases of COVID 19.
Methodology: This was a hospital-based cros- sectional study conducted from April to June 2021, among 100
COVID-19 positive patients admitted in ICU of a tertiary care center, Level-3(L3) facility of COVID-19 in North
India. A telephonic conversation was done with patients/attendants for data collection after explaining to them
the purpose. Those who gave consent were interviewed. A pre-designed, pre-validated, and semi-structured
questionnaire was used for data collection. Data analysis was done using R software and Chi square (χ2) test was
used as test of association.
Results: Out of 100 patients admitted in ICU, 41% patients were under the age of 45 years mostly from urban set
up. Of all 64% had no co-morbidities, 83% had no addiction, 66% were not on any medication. Majority of them
were either incompletely vaccinated or not vaccinated for Covid-19. 54% of ICU cases under study died. There
was no significant statistical association between mortality and age, gender, occupation, comorbidities, addiction,
medication, blood group, and residence. Lesser mortality of vegetarian patients was the only variable found to be
statistically significant (χ2 = 0.037 and p< 0.05).
Conclusion: Delta variant responsible for the second wave of COVID 19 pandemic in India had no favorites;
it caused severe infection and death despite the young age and good health, but it was found in our study that
vegetarians had higher chances of survival than non vegetarians. Hence everyone should be vaccinated and must
follow the COVID appropriate behavior.
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